|Farzana Sharmin, Mehedi Hasan, Abul Kalam Azad, Mohammad Ariful Islam
One Health Bull 2023, 3:5 (17 March 2023)
Objective: To determine the urinary tract infections (UTIs)-causing bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern for the proper and complete treatment of UTIs in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods: We collected 300 urine samples from diabetic and nondiabetic pregnant women at various gestational ages. After isolating and identifying uropathogens, we conducted an antibiotic sensitivity assay against fourteen commonly used antibiotics: amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefixime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, levofloxacin, netilmicin, nitrofurantoin.
Results: Among the participants, 70% had DM but only 37.3% had positive uropathogen growth. Five gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., and Pseudomonas spp.) and 3 gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp.) were indentified. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacteria (57.1%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (19.6%). In the antibiotic susceptibility assay, we found 96.5% of the isolated organisms were highly susceptible to levofloxacin, 94.2% to netilmicin, 88.2% to nitrofurantoin, 85.1% to amikacin, 79.8% to gentamicin, respectively. On the other hand, 64.8%, 63.6%, 61.8% of the isolates demonstrated high-level resistance to ampicillin, ceftazidime and amoxicillin whereas 38.0%, 37.1%, 33.6%, 30.9% and 30.0% of the organisms were resistant to co-trimoxazole, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, cefixime, respectivey.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that amikacin, levofloxacin, netilmicin, nitrofurantoin, and gentamycin can be used as first-line treatments for UTIs, whether the patient has DM or not. Contrarily, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftazidime, azithromycin, and co-trimoxazole should be avoided in treating UTIs.
|Maryglen Gargantiel, Erwin Faller, Dileep Kumar, Prashant Tiwari
One Health Bull 2023, 3:4 (17 March 2023)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the brain. Currently, approximately 55 million people have dementia across the globe and the number of AD patients is estimated by the WHO to reach about 78 million people by 2030 and nearly 139 million by 2050 globally. Amyloid β42, amyloid β oligomers, and tau proteins are the major biomarkers to understand the AD-like pathology. Therapies target β-amyloid (Aβ) for the modification of AD but poor permeability hampers the uses of drugs against AD. Other drugs including NMDA-receptor antagonists, cholinesterase inhibitors and their combination provide only temporary symptomatic relief. Meanwhile nutraceuticals are studied for mitigating the course of dementia. This study reviews therapeutic nutraceuticals which could be effective for treating AD.