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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-9

The 697th Xiangshan Science Conference consensus report on One Health and human health

1 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
2 China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, China
3 Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai, China
4 National Institute for Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention, China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
5 One Health Center of Excellence for Research and Training, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

Date of Submission23-Sep-2021
Date of Decision10-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance13-Oct-2021
Date of Web Publication03-Nov-2021

Correspondence Address:
Jiahai Lu
One Health Center of Excellence for Research and Training, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2773-0344.329025

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How to cite this article:
Gao GF, Chen J, Zhao G, Xu J, Lu J. The 697th Xiangshan Science Conference consensus report on One Health and human health. One Health Bull 2021;1:3-9

How to cite this URL:
Gao GF, Chen J, Zhao G, Xu J, Lu J. The 697th Xiangshan Science Conference consensus report on One Health and human health. One Health Bull [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 1];1:3-9. Available from: http://www.johb.info/text.asp?2021/1/1/3/329025

Editor’s note: Xiangshan Science Conferences was initiated by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (formerly the State Scientific and Technological Commission) in 1992 and officially established in April 1993 under the joint sponsorship of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It has successively received supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Ministry of Education, the Science and Technology Committee of the Central Military Commission, the China Association for Science and Technology, the National Health Commission, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, and the Ministry of Transport.

Xiangshan Science Conferences is the venue for high-level, interdisciplinary and small-scale regular academic conferences in the science and technology circle of China, aiming at exploring the frontiers of science and promoting knowledge innovation. The executive chairman/chairmen is/are responsible for organizing and setting the theme of each conference.

  1. Introduction Top

Humans have been facing increased health risks, such as biosecurity risks, infectious diseases, population aging, chronic non-communicable diseases, severe antibiotic resistance, continuing global environmental changes, and serious air pollution since the 20th century. As a matter of fact, the health of humans, animals, and the environment are all interconnected and form an inseparable whole. No single discipline, organization, or sector can address such a complex issue alone. In recent years, One Health has become an internationally recognized key strategy to address major and complex human health issues. It is defined as “a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach—working at local, regional, national, and global levels—with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants and their shared environment”. One Health advocates cooperation and communication across disciplines, departments, regions, and countries to safeguard the health of humans, animals, and the environment, by effectively integrating resources from the sectors of medical health, veterinary sciences, environment, disease control, and other sectors. To date, there have been many successful One Health practices around the world. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic and China’s successful containment practice have further highlighted the importance of One Health strategy.

In response to the current public health crisis, we need to promote cooperation among investigators on One Health in China, encourage a multidisciplinary panel of experts to practice and explore in this field and share information and resources, as well as make efforts to increase the capacity of responding to major public health emergencies and improve the disease prevention and control system. On April 21-22, 2021, the 697th Xiangshan Science Conference co-chaired by Fu Gao and Jianguo Xu, senior researchers from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Junshi Chen, senior researcher from China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Guoping Zhao, senior researcher from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Jiahai Lu, professor at Sun Yat-Sen University, was held in Beijing with the theme of “One Health and human health” aiming to better integrate the One Health concept into healthcare policies and to build a strong public health system. The participant experts deliberated in-depth the best solutions to the emerging infectious diseases, bacterial drug resistance, environmental health, and other issues from the perspective of One Health and put forward an expert consensus on building a global community of health for all, guided by the One Health concept. Additionally, on this basis, relevant suggestions were raised on how to advance the One Health approach in China ([Table 1] shows the speakers and their presentation topics).
Table 1: Thematic review reports, central topic review reports, and keynote speeches.

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  2. One Health and emerging infectious diseases Top

In a broad sense, emerging infectious diseases mainly include newly discovered, emerging, and re-emerging infectious diseases, which are a common challenge for the prevention and control of infectious diseases globally. Since the 1970s, there have been more than 40 kinds of emerging infectious diseases in the world, more than 70% of which originated from animals or vectors, and their outbreak frequencies have been rapidly increasing. Due to drug resistance or reduced immunity of the population, some infectious diseases basically controlled in the past recur, such as tuberculosis, rabies, and schistosomiasis. In addition, with changes in natural and social factors, new infectious diseases have been keeping emerging, such as the 2003 SARS outbreak, the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic, the 2013 H7N9 epidemic, the 2014 Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in West Africa, the 2016 Zika epidemic in South America, the 2017 yellow fever outbreaks in Angola and Brazil, and the current COVID-19 pandemic.

The One Health strategy, a current internationally recognized effective way to respond to emerging infectious diseases, emphasizes the overall health of humans, animals, and the environment. By intensified monitoring of animals, the occupationally exposed population, and the environment, sectors for prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases can act earlier, thereby tackle ahead the problems currently faced by public health security sectors. To be honest, China’s plague prevention and control is a model for implementing the One Health strategy. The Ministry of Health (now the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China) is responsible for overall deployment and regulation, including the plague prevention and control management, implementation of measures, and publicity and education, while the Departments of Disease Control and Prevention (such as Local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Epidemic Prevention Stations; Rodent Control Centers; etc.) are responsible for wildlife plague surveillance, prevention and control, and publicity and education. With the core aim of battling the plague, the barriers between departments were broken and thus the spread of the plague was controlled quickly and completely. In fact, joint prevention and control mechanism is an effective practice of the One Health concept, which played an important role in responding to the SARS, Ebola, Avian Flu, Brucellosis, and other zoonotic diseases.

When COVID-19 emerged, the Central Committee of the Community Party of China and the State Council made rapid decisions and arrangements. The National Health Commission took lead in establishing a joint mechanism of epidemic prevention and control, setting up working groups for the epidemic prevention and control, medical treatment, scientific research, publicity of foreign affairs, logistics support, front work, etc. They had clear responsibilities and made collaborations together to forge an effective joint force to prevent and control the epidemic. As a result, in a relatively short time, the control has shifted from a passive response in the early stage of the epidemic into active control and prevention. It is another great successful practice of the One Health concept in infectious disease control.

Although China pumps hundreds of billions of yuan into the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases annually, the emerging infectious diseases still cause incalculable losses to national production. At present, there are many main difficulties in the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases, such as 1) little is known about the spectrum of pathogens carried by animals, and it is difficult to predict and timely respond to potential emerging infectious diseases; 2) a great number of hidden infections of pathogens exist in animal and human carriers, which makes it difficult to completely control and eliminate the epidemic; 3) the existing disease surveillance systems are mainly the passive surveillance systems, with hospitals as sentinels. Consequently, epidemic diseases are often discovered and valued only after they have spread from animals and high-risk populations to the general population; 4) there is still a lack of effective coordination and cooperation in the medical, health, and agricultural departments; 5) with the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative, international exchanges and cooperation have been further deepened and thus also have posed severe challenges to the prevention and control of infectious diseases in China. In the reality, owing to increased emerging infectious diseases, frequent international cooperation and exchanges, and closer human-animal-environmental relationships, we should adopt the following strategies and solutions based on the One Health concept to respond to emerging infectious diseases.

2.1. Remove health threats at the source and advance the prevention line

In the face of the threats of the emerging infectious diseases, the One Health concept emphasizes establishing a multidisciplinary and multisectoral coordination mechanism for human medicine, veterinary medicine, quality inspection, commodity inspection, forestry, agriculture, etc., to eliminate hazards of emerging infectious diseases at the source and move forward the prevention line. The corresponding strategies of One Health include: 1) transforming the current passive response model of detecting infectious diseases based on hospital monitoring into an active monitoring model with animal practitioners as the monitoring object; developing new monitoring methods and establishing professional population cohorts and stable animal monitoring sentinels. 2) carrying out reverse etiology research to shift passive response into proactive response and establish an active monitoring and prevention system for infectious disease epidemics. 3) strengthening the management of farms and animal trading markets, establishing biosafety quarantine areas, regulating the poultry industry, and increasing agricultural support, and meanwhile promoting industrial transformation and improving the cold chain transportation system. 4) if any live livestock or poultry infected by emerging infectious disease is detected, pathogen purification measures such as culling, disinfection, and isolation should be taken immediately.

2.2. Multi-disciplinary, multi-regional, multi-departmental integration and big data sharing

Based on the One Health concept, multi-disciplinary, multi-regional, and multi-departmental communication and cooperation are required to run throughout the whole process of infectious disease prevention and control. Before an emerging infectious disease occurs, multi-disciplinary and multi-departmental cooperation is conducive to promoting technological and institutional innovation and improving the ability to respond to public health emergencies. When emergent public health events occur, it is an urgent task for the government, which holds the most important data resources, to give full play to the value of information resources and improve the mechanism of data resources sharing. However, there are difficulties in data sharing between government departments due to the information barriers caused by segmentation between departments, the lack of a unified data platform, and the imperfect sharing system. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, big data has played a key role in decision-making and implementation of joint prevention and control, including epidemic status, dynamic tracking, and work resumption. Data sharing plays a significant role in the prevention, monitoring, and tracking of public health events and also helps government departments efficiently prevent and control the epidemic as well as accurately implement policies during the post-epidemic period. In the face of public health emergencies, abundant and accurate data mean correct decision-making and responses and also mean the guarantee of security of people’s lives and property. Hence, it is necessary to form a data-sharing mechanism to achieve data sharing between different departments, by breaking down original information barriers between departments, integrating the power of multi-disciplines, multi-regions, and multi-departments to improve the data management system, and unblocking data channels.

2.3. Long-term and sustainable system construction and scientific research

Since the 2003 SARS epidemic, China has witnessed notable progress in personnel, technical reserves, and platforms of infectious disease prevention and control. However, system building is a long-term project. Regardless of whether it is in a “normal time” or “wartime” state, we should sustainably promote the construction of a strong public health system, constantly learn from experience and lessons from global outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, and improve the system construction. In the future, we need to focus on the “intersections”, “blind spots” and “difficulties” among disciplines of medicine, veterinary science, and environmental science, adhere to long-term and sustainable system construction and scientific research, and flexibly explore the construction of discipline system of One Health. Moreover, we need to improve the quality of high education, break down barriers of disciplines and cultivate interdisciplinary professionals with “profound knowledge, strong ability, and quick emergency response”.

  3. One Health and antibiotic resistance Top

Long-term abuse of antibiotics has led to increased bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now a most complex and dire threat to global public health. It is estimated that AMR causes approximately 700 000 deaths worldwide each year and by the year 2050 this death toll will increase to 10 million and cause economic losses of nearly 100 trillion U.S. dollars. The World Health Organization (WHO) claims “no action today, no cure tomorrow”. Afterward, the AMR issue has received increased international attention. The United Nations’ troika (namely WHO, Food and Agricultural Organization, and Animal Health Organization) all has promulgated global action plans. In 2016, the United Nations General Assembly convened high-level meetings on the special topic and adopted a political declaration highlighting the importance of achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. On March 25, 2021, the European Union called for “We must curb the rise of antimicrobial resistance, a major global health threat. We should learn from the COVID-19 pandemic and now (before it is too late) strengthen to curb antimicrobial resistance”.

China is a major producer and user of antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance is serious in humans and animals. Before the year of 2017, more than 50 000 tons of antibiotics were annually used in animal breeding industry, more than 50% of which were used as medicated feed additives. Animal breeding industry is one of sources of discharging antibacterial agents and generating bacterial drug resistance and is also an important source of infection in clinical medicine. Animal-derived drug-resistant bacteria can spread to people through the food chain and the environment. Studies have shown that more than 60% of pathogenic bacteria infecting humans originate from animals, and the animal-derived drug-resistant bacteria can lead to infection in approximately 20% of patients. Drug-resistant Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus aureus have been classified into “serious” level by WHO, as their prevalence can result in a large number of infections and economic losses. In China, the drug resistance of these three types of food-borne pathogens is very severe in livestock and poultry. Therefore, prohibition and restriction of antibacterial drugs are one of the most important strategies for the prevention and control of drug resistance. The Chinese government has also issued a series of action plans to curb bacterial resistance, such as “Action to Reduce the Use of Veterinary Antimicrobials” and “Medicated Feed Additives Withdrawal Plan”, advocated scientific and rational use of antibacterial drugs, and enacted policies to guide rational drug use in animal breeding so as to control the spread of drug resistance. Additionally, novel drug resistance control strategies have become a global research hotspot, including 1) research and development of novel antibacterial drugs; 2) screening of broad-spectrum antimicrobial synergists; 3) research and development of novel antibiotic alternatives such as pathogen vaccines, probiotics, and phage therapy.

In clinic, due to widespread abuse of antibiotics and severe bacterial resistance, effective drugs are less available. Besides, emergence of “superbacteria” makes it difficult to implement organ transplantation, intensive care, and other advanced clinical interventions. Over the past few decades, horizontal transfer of resistance genes has been a contributor to most current antimicrobial resistance. Concerning stable existence and long-term spread of antimicrobial resistance, it is crucial to strengthen research on genetic evolution of drug-resistant bacteria which spread from the environment to the host or from one host to the other. Since bacterial drug resistance constantly evolves and new drugs are extensively used in clinic, it is a need to comprehensively expound on the generation of drug-resistant genes and the formation and spread of superior clones of drug-resistant bacteria from time to space and from hospital infection control to individual hosts, which plays a pivotal role in the prevention and control of clinical resistant bacteria.

Antibiotic pollution in the environment can induce microbial resistance, i.e. antibiotics resistance gene expression. In addition, other chemical pollutants in the environment can also drive the generation of drug resistance. Antibiotics resistance genes are carried by microorganisms and spread between the environment, animals, and humans, among which, the environment is an important repository of drug resistance. The large-scale use of antibiotics in clinic and animal breeding industry is the main driving factor for the development and spread of drug resistance. As microorganisms are ubiquitous, drug resistance is widespread and interrelated in all parts of the ecosystem.

Antibiotic resistance is a long-term problem. The research and development speed of new antibiotics is far lower than that of drug resistance emergence. If drug abuse continues, it will lead to a future state of no cure. Hence, we need to take measures to slow the development speed of drug resistance and seek a balance between drug use and drug resistance, to achieve a balance between economic and health effects. So far, China has issued national action plans and achieved preliminary successes in reducing the use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals. However, at present each department basically works alone, and it is far from comprehensive coordination. In fact, curbing bacterial resistance needs cooperation among various industries and fields. And the current international consensus is that the One Health principle must be followed to address the AMR problem. All stakeholders should jointly collaborate and reduce the use of antimicrobial drugs in humans, animals, foods, and the environment. Nowadays, clarifying the current status of drug resistance in China is our top priority. We need to know how serious AMR is in China and what hazards and impact it brings to human and animal health and the environment. Additionally, we need to find drug-resistant genes and figure out their transmission routes and consequences. All this requires us to facilitate relevant departments to take active participation, integrate the modularized national monitoring systems, build a collaboration platform and follow the One Health concept, so as to jointly cope with the challenges of AMR.

  4. One Health and environmental health Top

Today, the eco-environment is deteriorating globally, with land desertification, proliferation of drug-resistant bacteria, household waste pollution, etc. In such a global context, the eco-environment problems in China are tremendously grim as well, such as atmospheric fine particle pollution level far higher than the global average, shortage of per capita water, serious water pollution, unreversed heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, et al.) in soil, and major potential threats posed by persistent organic pollutants and other new types of pollution. In addition, under the background of global climate change, the temperature in our nation has been rising for many years, with multiple types of extreme weather events frequently emerging, ocean acidification, and eco-environmental degradation problems. Facing these environmental problems, the Party and the country have highly valued the ecological civilization construction and pollution management. Especially, since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the country has sustainably promoted to build an ecological civilization and address the primary environmental pollution problems, thus greatly improving the eco-environment. However, there are still some drawbacks in prevention and management. In terms of concept, the prevention and control strategies and measures are enacted mainly from the angle of protecting the health of the population, while the patriotic health campaign and the construction of healthy cities are simultaneously promoted. Nevertheless, regarding the systematic health of “human-society-environment”, there is a lack of animal and plant health and also a lack of multi-department coordination, far from being comprehensive and refined. To address the intricate eco-environmental problems and environmental public health issues in our nation, we need to strengthen the One Health concept and treat the ecological environment, human health, and animal and plant health as a whole. We need to comprehensively understand the interrelationship between humans, animals, plants, and their shared environment through an interdisciplinary and multi-sectoral collaboration approach. Moreover, we need to adopt new strategies, such as interdepartmental collaboration, monitoring coordination, and measure synergy, to solve health problems from local, regional, and national levels, thus sparing our country from major economic losses.

In terms of governance and decision-making, we need to formulate and implement national-level response strategies and emergency response plans, establish relevant laws and regulations to transform passive monitoring into active monitoring, and carry out collaborative assessments on ecological, human, animal, and plant health risks. Based on these, specific measures are required to be implemented correspondingly. Key special projects of “One Health and Human Health” should be initiated under the key research and development program of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Cross-field and multidisciplinary cooperative researches should be promoted. The abilities of scientific research innovation, scientific and technological support, and policy decision-making should be enhanced.

  5. Expert consensus Top

5.1. Adhering to the One Health concept in response to the challenges for human health in China is crucial

Chinese residents are being threatened by multiple diseases and health influence factors, due to industrialization, population aging, urbanization, and continued changes in disease spectrum, eco-environment, and lifestyle. Currently, no single discipline, institution, organization, or country can solve the current complex public health problems alone. Only by adhering to the One Health concept and unifying human health, animal health, and environmental health as an organic whole, can we truly achieve the goal of a global community of health for all. One Health is a new strategy and new method to implement the important instructions of the General Secretary Xi Jinping on building a strong public health system, which can help to solve complex health problems from the holistic perspective of “humans-animals-the environment” health. One Health is also an important channel to build a global community of health for all, emphasizing interdisciplinary, interdepartmental, cross-regional collaboration and communication.

Nowadays, the One Health concept has been practiced and applied in more and more countries and international organizations in the health governance process, which provides creative solutions to global health issues. Especially, since the outbreak of the COVID-19, One Health has developed expeditely around the globe and many international institutions have been conducting researches on epidemic surveillance and virus traceability based on the One Health concept. Compared with many international One Health government agencies, international organizations, educational and research institutions, and research funds, China has no relevant governmental agencies of One Health. Despite restrictions in government institutions multiple times, human health is still managed by the health departments, the environment is still managed by the environmental departments, and animal health is still managed by several departments (agriculture, forestry, fishery). Hence, it is quite urgent to carry out theoretical and practical researches on One Health. Extensive attention and resource input from the government and society are also needed.

5.2. Conducting background surveys of pathogenic microorganisms and implementing monitoring and early warning of future emerging infectious diseases is urgent

Lots of unknown microorganisms in nature have not been discovered and some of them may lead to human diseases. Microorganisms came to the earth much earlier than human beings and they weren’t there to “make humans sick”. In order to survive, microbes performed various functions and some of them caused human diseases under certain conditions. Overexploitation of nature by humans and the developed global tourism industry have greatly increased the chance of pathogen to spread across species. Humans are unaware of the pathogens in most wild animals and are also almost unknown about the relationship between them. For example, wild animals on the Tibetan Plateau carry a large number of pathogens, which are not pathogenic to the wild animals themselves but can pose high risks to humans. In 2009, the EcoHealth Alliance of the United States launched a project called “PREDICT”, which is currently funded with 200 million US dollars to search for viruses of wild animals in 31 countries, collect samples, analyze sequences, and store data. Hence, our nation should also carry out background surveys of the pathogenic resources of wild animals as soon as possible.

The background survey is a basis for obtaining the knowledge of “One Health” from the dimension of nature, which can fill up the “blind spot” of human cognition about the influence of pathogens on health. Conducting researches on the prevention and control of wild animals, microbes, and future emerging infectious diseases and establishing an analysis framework and evaluation technology system for risk assessment, prediction and early warning of potential animal-derived emerging infectious diseases are conductive to know the background information of microbiomes in wild animals and further thoroughly analyze, discover, early warn and even predict major emerging infectious diseases of animal origin in the future. Analysis and prediction of animal-derived microorganisms can help to identify pathogens instantly and accurately when infectious disease emerges, so that it can shorten the time from discovery to response, minimize the impact and loss on society and economy, and further comprehensively improve the ability to prevent and control new and sudden infectious diseases. That is an important method to improve the disease prevention and control system.

5.3. Data sharing is essential

In the era of big data, government departments are confronting common problems, including unsharable resources, poor information communication, and difficult business collaboration. These problems can be attributed to inadequate data sharing. Even, there are greater challenges for data sharing in emergent public events. For instance, this sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has highlighted the dilemma of traditional data interconnectivity. Data serve as a basic strategic resource and scientific research activities cannot be conducted without it. Therefore, it is quite important to make data open sharing, thereby improving the efficiency and value of data. Our nation has had obvious deficiencies in the development and utilization, open sharing, and security protection of scientific data for a long time. Many high-value scientific data have not been fully shared and used in domestic. In recent years, our nation has explored and promoted the open sharing of scientific data in the fields of basic science, agriculture, forestry, and meteorology, but overall there have been short of top-level design and drive mechanism. Moreover, there is a relative weakness in the overall management of data. As a result, the field of science and technology tends to be more prone to “data silos” and “data chimney”.

In various public health emergencies, abundant and accurate data mean correct decisions and response measures, and also mean the protection of people’s lives and property. So, to achieve data sharing between departments, it is a need to break original information barriers between departments, improve data management systems, and unblock data channels. The COVID-19 pandemic shows the important role of data sharing in improving the monitoring and early warning capabilities of public health events. Hence, we need to build a unified national big data management platform of “One Health”, to advance deep integration of data about disease monitoring, residents’ health records, environmental pollution, meteorology, social economy, and geography.

  6. Expert recommendations Top

After an in-depth discussion, the participant experts unanimously agreed on the concept of “One Health” as an important theoretical guide for building a global community of health for all, and put forward the following suggestions on how to promote the practice of One Health in domestic.

6.1. Establishing “One Health” committees and professional societies

We should be devoted to operating interdisciplinary and data-driven multi-unit cooperation and multi-departmental collaboration, coordinating the strengths of medical health, animal epidemic prevention, environmental science, biology, information engineering, and other related fields, as well as jointly promoting a global community of health for all under the guidance of the concept of “One Health”.

6.2. Launching major multi-disciplinary research plans based on “One Health”

We should strengthen multidisciplinary theoretical researches on “One Health” collaboratively, enhance core technologies based on the integration of biotechnology and information technology, strengthen the construction of strategic scientific and technological forces in the field of public health, and carry out background surveys of wild animal pathogens and database construction. Following the One Health strategy, we should also perform ongoing monitoring and early warning at the interfaces between humans, animals, and the environment, to move forward epidemic prevention and control.

6.3. Setting up new disciplines and professional research institutions conforming to the “One Health” concept

We should set up new disciplines named “One Health” to cultivate versatile talents in line with the future trend of “globalization and decentralization”. We should also establish “One Health” professional research institutions and merge “One Health” into the public health system to build a disease prevention and control system aiming at “active health”.

6.4. Operating open data-sharing mechanism of joint prevention and control of public health

We should establish a flat transmission network based on the automatic transmission of community-level information data of infectious diseases, which can avoid human intervention and key data omission. We should establish a regular working mechanism of joint prevention and control as well as mass prevention and mass treatment among health, agriculture, forestry, customs and emergency response agencies and local governments. We should integrate and mine the health-related quantitative data of humans, animals, and the environment, strengthen information and data sharing between departments, and improve the public health service level based on quantitative data.


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