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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14

Seroprevalence and risk factor analysis of small ruminant brucellosis in the semi-arid region of India

1 Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India Izatnagar 243122, India
2 Division of Epidemiology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India

Correspondence Address:
Murthy Suman Kumar
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Sai Simha Reddy Vakamalla
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2773-0344.383635

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Objective: To study the occurrence of brucellosis in small ruminants in a district of Southern India. Methods: A total of 425 serum samples (215 sheep and 210 goats) were collected from January to March 2022 using a multistage sampling method. The serum samples were subjected to three serological tests that were employed in this study, namely RBPT (Rose Bengal Plate Test), STAT (Standard Tube Agglutination Test), and I-ELISA. The risk factors were determined by collecting data through a questionnaire and establishing correlations between the responses and seropositivity within a specific flock. Result: Among the 425 samples collected, 91 samples (21.4%) were positive by RBPT, 124 samples (29.2%) by STAT and 156 samples (36.7%) by I-ELISA in sheep and goats. Sheep showed higher seropositivity in all three tests than goats. Analysis of multivariable logistic regression showed that age (>3 vs.<3 years; OR: 2.262, 95% CI: 1.414–3.618), abortion history (yes vs. no; OR: 1.837; 95% CI: 1.098–3.071), vaginal discharges (yes vs. no; OR: 2.334; 95% CI: 1.421–3.835), the migratory herd (yes vs. no; OR: 2.197; 95% CI: 1.369–3.527), and place of disposal of the foetus (yes vs. no; OR: 2.093; 95% CI: 1.320–3.318) were significant risk factors of brucellosis. Conclusions: Livestock owners and consumers of sheep and goats should be educated about brucellosis and prevention strategies to mitigate its uncontrolled spread and lower the potential threat of human brucellosis. Choosing the right rearing practices, enhancing husbandry procedures, changing farmer’s perspectives on brucellosis, and inclusion of small ruminants in brucellosis control programs are all key management approaches that can aid in the prevention and control of Brucella infection in small ruminants.

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